Chapter 6 in the book Lessons Learned: Case Studies in Sustainable Use. Multiple Use Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have emerged as an important mechanism in the conservation and sustainable use of marine resources. This study investigates whether there are common factors that enhance or constrain the sustainability of resource use and management within the MPAs. A comparative analysis of resource use patterns and associated socio-economic, socio-political, and institutional factors was carried out in four MPAs: Hikkaduwa Nature Reserve (Sri Lanka), Mafia Island Marine Park (Tanzania), Hon Mun Marine Protected Area (Vietnam), and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (Australia). In this investigation a simple analytic framework was used. This was broadly based on a framework developed by the Sustainable Use Specialist Group (SUSG) Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (Annex 1), and on a matrix developed by Ticco (1995) to analyse MPAs. The modified framework used provided a means of inter-regional comparison of marine protected areas and the resource use activities taking place within their boundaries.