India's rapid economic advances over the last two decades are a cause of satisfaction. However, that satisfaction is allayed by the fact that several groups are being left out of these advances. One group, that rarely comes to mind but that badly needs to be brought into the center of development, is adolescent girls. India lacks an institutional system to protect girls, as evident in the steadily deteriorating ratio of females to males, which declined from 972 females to 1,000 males in 1991 to 940 females to 1,000 males in 2011. Adolescent girls are at a particular disadvantage since they are systematically denied the advantages of autonomy, mobility and economic opportunity that adolescent boys enjoy. This report brings out the realities and challenges that adolescent girls face in their attempts to lead healthy, fulfilling lives and suggests how the right investments in empowering them could have the highest impact.