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Open Society Initiative for West Africa (OSIWA);
The second edition of Social Accountability Guidebook for CSOs is a learning resource that is intended to support the building of a community of practice of social accountability practitioners, advocates, and champions in West Africa. This guidebook is an updated version of the first edition which was published in 2018. The Guidebook presents case studies of social accountability initiatives from the West African region, interspersed with definitions of terminologies related to the concept. It is intended to deepen understanding and foster appreciation of the concept of social accountability, its potential for strengthening accountability in the region, and the challenges that may be encountered in implementing social accountability initiatives in the West African Context. It is hoped that the Guidebook will serve as a catalyst for further development and tailoring of the concept of social accountability in West Africa, by CSOs, development practitioners, local and central government agencies, the donor community, and all others who are interested in advancing accountability in West Africa.
The Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment Program (GEWEP) II was implemented over four years from March 2016 through February 2020. GEWEP II worked with and for poor women and girls in some of the world's most fragile states: Burundi, DRC, Mali, Myanmar, Niger and Rwanda. By the end of the program period, GEWEP IIreached more than 1 161 869women and girls, mainly through Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLAs). Norad has supported VSLAs since they were first piloted by CARE in Niger in 1991. Since then, Norad has supported over 49 722 groups encompassing more than 1 150 625 women. This includes GEWEP II and previous programming, which GEWEP II builds on. During GEWEP II, more than 16 070 new groups were established. This is a key method for providing financial services to poor women and girls, and an important contribution towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9, which all mention access to financial services.This report includes results on outcome and output level, of which the outcome level results were presented in detail in the GEWEP II Result Report submitted in May 2019. The table below summarizes the results at outcome level, for the global indicators that were collected across all program countries. These indicators were collected at the population level in the intervention zones. Overall, there has been positive change in the perception and attitude to women's economic, political and social empowerment in the intervention zones. On a national level, there has been positive changes in legislation, but implementation remains a challenge. A few indicators saw negative change. In Burundi, the percentage of women who state they are able to influence decisions went down from baseline, although it is still high at 88%. In Niger, the patriarchy remains strong, but despite challenges in changing men's attitudes, women have reported increased participation and social inclusion. The indicator focusing on women's sole decision-making saw little progress as the program worked more towards joint decision making.
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2015/16, selected for review under the women's empowerment thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental impact evaluation carried out in January 2016 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Girls CAN - Promoting Secondary Education in West Africa' project.The overall objective of this project was to promote the successful transition of adolescent girls from primary to secondary school. This was achieved by rolling out a variety of activities to support the change from within the community. It was, therefore, aimed not only at girls, but also at all community members involved in the project (e.g. mothers, school directors and religious figures).The project was implemented by Oxfam in conjunction with the Association d'Appui à l'Auto Développement Communautaire (AADeC), a local NGO, in collaboration with the Centre d'Animation Pedagogique (CAP) of Baguinéda, and the Ministry of National Education. It started in October 2011 in 17 primary schools and eight secondary schools, and ended in December 2015.Read more about Oxfam's Effectiveness Reviews.
IIE Center for Academic Mobility Research & Impact;
People gather in structured, if informal, community groups for many reasons—social, such as a book club or softball league; economic, such as a team hosting a fundraiser for a member's medical expenses; or political, such as neighbors meeting to address flooding caused by poor infrastructure. But how does participating in such groups affect people's well-being or decisions to work for other community improvements? Level of political knowledge? Level of trust toward group members, people in the broader community, or institutions such as the government? Or willingness to tolerate differences that are often at the root of conflict, such as ethnicity and religion?Through an Innovation and Research Grant funded by USAID's Center of Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance under the Democracy Fellows and Grants Program, Professors Jaimie Bleck from the University of Notre Dame and Philippe LeMay-Boucher from Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with Jacopo Bonan from Catholic University of the Sacred Heart and Bassirou Sarr from the Paris School of Economics, worked to answer these questions by studying community groups called grins that meet in neighborhoods across Mali's cities. The research, which included both survey data and data generated through the public goods and trust experimental games, was implemented in two sites in Mali: the capital Bamako and the twin cities of Mopti and Sevare, on the border between the formerly occupied north and the south. Key findings include:Grins' primary purpose is social, but the groups also help members meet economic needs and provide a venue for political discussion and community service, such as neighborhood cleanup.The majority of grins are male-only, and the majority of grin members are male, comparatively better educated, and unmarried; however, members of male-only grins trusted one another less than members of mixed-gender or female-only grins.Members are better able to produce public goods than non-members, but only when working with members of their own grin.Members are considered more trustworthy than non-members, except for grins with internally displaced persons as members.Grinmembers had more trust in social institutions and diverse ethnic groups, though no more trust of the government; members of ethnically homogenous grins trusted diverse ethnic groups less.
The 2013 elections helped to restore constitutional order in Mali and marked the start of a period of hope for peace, stability and development. The challenge is now to respond to the Malian people's desire for improved governance.This briefing note, based on the experiences of Oxfam and its Malian civil society partners, calls on the new government to ensure:equitable development across all regions of the country;increased citizen participation, in particular women's political participation;improved access to justice;the promotion of national reconciliation.It also calls on the UN mission and international donors to fund and protect this work, and to ensure that results are recorded in a transparent and accountable way.
The conflict that began in Mali in January 2012 turned the lives of many Malians upside down and deeply affected the country's social fabric. This report is the result of a survey carried out by Oxfam in June 2013 on the impact of the conflict on social relations within and between the populations of northern Mali. The populations surveyed for this report are unanimous that the consequences of this crisis are far greater than those of the past, and that what makes this conflict different is the breakdown of social relations.Faced by violence, mass exodus, and human rights violations, many of those surveyed have lived through shocking experiences, losing family ties and weakening traditional values. However, the report also reveals that despite the physical and moral damage caused by the war, despite the abuses committed by all parties, despite the differences of interest between individuals and communities, and despite the difficulties of communication following massive displacement, the rift between communities is not irreparable.Oxfam hopes this report and the voices of the communities it contains will prompt reflection and guide the actions of the national and international actors in Mali's reconciliation process.
This report presents the findings of an effectiveness review carried out on Oxfam's response to the 2011/2012 food insecurity response in Mali that was undertaken through the application of Oxfam's Humanitarian Indicator Tool. Overall the response scored 45 per cent and met or almost met 4 of the 11 standards. Although this is below the 60 per cent cut-off point, complicating political instability and conflict need to be taken into account. This intensified needs and contributed to extending the coverage targets. Operational challenges were aggravated further by problems in attracting French speaking staff. Together with lack of preparedness these combined to cause delays, hinder coverage and to under deliver on technical standards. However, the quality of Oxfam's partnerships meant that access to affected populations in Gao was retained after Oxfam staff withdrew due to insecurity. Sudden political changes were also accommodated by Oxfam's advocacy and media teams, which were able to make important inputs and influence the UN and AU's discourse on Mali.
This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2013/14, selected for review under the resilience thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in March/April 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the 'Increasing Food Security' project.This project includes two related initiatives that have been carried out by Oxfam together with local partners since 2010 that are aimed at building food security and resilience among vulnerable people in Mali.For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews.
With conflict escalating in Mali, the aid effort to help some 145,000 refugees living in camps across remote, poor areas of the Sahel could become overwhelmed unless there is a step-change in the way aid operations are carried out. Since January 2012, nearly 375,000 Malians have fled the conflict in the north of their country. Some 145,000, the majority of them women and children, have crossed into Burkina Faso, Mauritania and Niger. More refugees are set to follow as fighting intensifies in Mali. Host governments and humanitarian agencies have provided life-saving aid to refugees in difficult circumstances, but they are struggling to meet all the refugees' basic needs, in particular in education, nutrition and protection. In Niger's camps, up to 21 per cent of children are malnourished, well above the 15 per cent 'emergency threshold' set by the UN. For many refugees - including those interviewed by Oxfam - this was the latest of several flights from crisis over two decades and they say they will not return until a lasting peace in Mali is secured.Oxfam's briefing paper analyses the shortfalls in the humanitarian response to refugees, and outlines what is needed to better meet the needs of refugees and the communities among which they are living. It also calls on all military forces and armed groups in Mali to take all possible steps to prevent harm to an already distressed civilian population. Finally, the report emphasises that Mali's crisis can only be addressed through a comprehensive approach that moves beyond a focus on counter-terrorism and seeks to address the deep-seated drivers of the conflict.
With global trade talks stalled at the World Trade Organisation (WTO), rich-country cotton subsidies remain unabated, hurting poor cotton farmers. World Bank led reforms to privatise the Malian cotton sector, including the adoption of a new price- setting mechanism, are further exacerbating the dire conditions in cotton-producing communities. A minimum level of price stability is vital for income security in the cotton sector and to prevent further slides into poverty. The wider donor community should provide adequate funds to finance a cotton-sector support fund, as well as invest in rural extension services and sustain capacity building of farmers to enable them to maximise their returns from new market opportunities.
Mali is the third largest producer of gold in Africa and yet one in five Malians still live in extreme poverty. More than 12 months of conflict, insecurity and human rights violations have further weakened communities. The north of the country is now facing its second food crisis in less than two years, with experts predicting an emergency situation in the coming months if nothing is done. This Oxfam briefing calls for action to meet these massive humanitarian and development needs, and a new development contract to be agreed between citizens and the Malian authorities so that the latter can be held accountable for the policies they implement. Development must be informed by the needs and interests of ordinary people, who need to be much more involved in decisions that will determine their future.Donors have an important role to play, given the magnitude of aid they provide, starting with a commitment to continue providing aid for at least the next 15 years. Aid can contribute to improving governance and transparency in Mali. Donors should evaluate the impact of their aid to Mali over the past two decades and set an example with transparent aid that does not fuel conflict but rather helps to build lasting peace.The Donor Conference in Brussels on 15 May 2013 is an opportunity to set in motion a new development contract for Mali.
Mali is divided into 8 regions, 1 District (capital city Bamako), 49 administrative units ("Cercles") and 703 municipalities. It has a Saharan climate in the North, Sahelian in the centre and Sudanese in the South. Annual rainfall varies from less than 200mm in the North to more than 1,100mm in the South.