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Brooklyn Community Bail Fund;
As a follow up to our 2017 report "License & Registration Please," this report documents commercial bail bond company compliance with recently passed New York City and existing New York State laws meant to increase oversight of the predatory commercial bail bond industry.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
Can the market be trusted to provide the bundle of goods and services that society deems a basic entitlement of citizenship? The retreat from state-centered welfare institutions and the rise of policy movements emphasizing market-based alternatives over the past thirty years is said to mark a breaking point from the progressivism of the early twentieth century. Evidence from the Russell Sage Foundation Records, housed at the Rockefeller Archive Center, suggests that the trajectory from state to market or public to private is less representative than is commonly thought. Among the Foundation's most successful campaigns was its battle to reform small-sum lending between 1909 and 1946. Inspired by journalistic tales of working families held in virtual slavery by nefarious loan sharks, the Russell Sage Foundation devoted considerable resources to freeing small borrowers from the high rates of interest and criminal intimidation thought to engender poverty, crime, class agitation, and political radicalism. The Foundation's gradual pivot from promoting philanthropic solutions meant to circumvent the market in money to embracing profit and competition as a market-oriented means of achieving progressive ends stands as a key moment in the rise of the personal finance industry. It also serves as an early case study in the privatization of American social policy and an object lesson in the challenges reformers have faced when forging partnerships with the competitive marketplace.
The 'Transparency through mobile internet – Gajimu.com' project, implemented by WageIndicator Foundation, aims to use mobile internet to strengthen the transparency of Indonesian garment factories' compliance with minimum wages and national labor law. At the same time it aims to increase the number of factories that comply with these. In the period, January – March 2019, the C&A Foundation commissioned a summative evaluation of the project to assess the extent to which it had achieved its intended objectives. It also hoped to gather any lessons-learnt on the extent to which the project's design and implementation contributed to the intended outcomes.
How the multibillion-dollar business behind online advertising could reinvent public media, revitalize journalism and strengthen democracy
This is the first comprehensive study regarding the state of automated decision-making in Europe. Experts have looked at the situation at the EU level but also in 12 Member States: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK. They assessed not only the political discussions and initiatives in these countries but also present a section "ADM in Action" for all states, listing examples of automated decision-making already in use.
Open Society Foundation International Migration Initiative;
Low-wage migrant workers commonly encounter abuses of their labor rights during the migration process. These abuses can include deceptive practices by recruitment agencies, underpayment, poor and unsafe working conditions, and other exploitative practices that may amount to criminal forced labor or human trafficking offenses.
Over the past five years, digital technology initiatives have been developed to inform, empower, and connect migrant workers in new ways. These include consumer reporting platforms that pool data on migrants' experiences with recruitment agencies, within supply chains, and more. Technology offers the promise that the worker's voice is central to their migration and employment decisions, and allows them to share their experiences in order to reduce exploitation.
This report examines five areas in which digital platforms are being developed to protect and empower migrant workers, and considers practical, legal, ethical, and technological implications, and the risks associated with them.
The report concludes that digital technology cannot fix structural inequalities, missing institutional capacity, or a lack of political will to address labor exploitation. But when used responsibly and with worker protection and outcomes as a priority, it offers new and amplified opportunities for migrant worker empowerment and justice.
The UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 requires organizations with a turnover of at least £36m to make a public statement on steps they are taking to identify and prevent modern slavery in their operations and supply chains. Oxfam GB advocated for this policy development, and this statement relates to steps taken in relation to our own operations and supply chains. Our first statement in 2016 gave detailed information about our policies and processes to demonstrate transparency on this challenging issue and to encourage other companies to be transparent. This statement is an update on progress against the two-year commitments that we made in that first statement.
New Oxfam research shows that four pharmaceutical corporations -- Abbott, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, and Pfizer -- systematically hide their profits in overseas tax havens. This activity could deprive developing countries of more than $100 million every year -- money that is urgently needed to meet the health needs of people in these countries -- while charging very high prices for their products. Tax dodging, high prices, and political influencing by drug companies exacerbate the yawning gap between rich and poor, between men and women, and between advanced economies and developing ones.
This report shows how corporations can use sophisticated tax planning to take advantage of a broken system that allows multinational corporations from many different industries to avoid taxes.
College of Education and Social Services at ScholarWorks at University of Vermont;
This study investigates the effectiveness of North Carolina Senate Bill 402, Section 8.36 – Grants for School Resource Officers in Elementary and Middle Schools, which provides matching state funds to districts for use in middle and elementary schools. Using generalized difference-in-difference and negative binomial hurdle regression designs, seven years of data – inclusive of 110 districts and 471 middle schools – were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of the state-funded SRO program. Results show that offering matched SRO funds to increase policing and training was not associated with reductions in reported acts (infractions) per school year, a key measure of school safety. Racial enrollment percentages, such as higher enrollments of Black and Hispanic students, were generally not associated with increased disciplinary acts. However, total enrollment was associated with increases in reported acts and increased grade level proficiency was associated with reductions in reported acts. Findings also show that public policy activity generally increases after school shootings occur. However, a multi-pronged school safety approach, beyond preventing mass acts of violence through increased policing, is recommended. Specifically, policies that focus on a broad range of issues, including those that improve academic achievement and address larger societal challenges have potential to enhance school safety.
In 2017, Elrha's Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) launched a Challenge 'to understand how to design, implement, and evaluate approaches to user-centred sanitation that incorporate rapid community engagement and are appropriate for the first stage of rapid-onset emergencies' (defined as the first twelve weeks post crisis). A component of this Challenge involved undertaking a landscape review of existing community engagement practice and approaches that could be used to provide a background resource for Challenge participants. The review was carried out by Oxfam, the HIF's Research and Evaluation Partner for the project. It draws on published and grey literature and interviews with 15 key informants.
This report uses 2013–2015 International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) data to trace Swedish aid to Tanzania to its end use. It finds that general budget support (GBS) accounted for much of Swedish aid in 2013 and 2015, but could not determine final expenditures using IATI data. In the absence of GBS, the authors could only confirm that in 2014, 28 percent of Swedish aid arrived in Tanzania, via the government and Tanzania-based organizations. A key constraint to traceability is that Sweden does not require aid implementers to report to IATI. The report recommends that Sweden encourage such reporting.
Syrian refugees living in informal tented settlements in Lebanon are in a difficult position, being last in line for public water and other unregulated water sources. Humanitarian aid agencies have been delivering water by trucks, and while this has ensured Syrians have adequate non-contaminated water, it has come at a financial and environmental cost. Water sources are being depleted and aid agencies are spending considerable sums to provide a service that is not sustainable.
This study looks at the obstacles to providing more sustainable solutions: extending piped public water to settlements, focusing on the financial, social and legal feasibility requirements. A multi-level governance approach is recommended to address water supply to all affected communities.